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Θεωρία της δικαιοσύνης John Rawls

Θεωρία της δικαιοσύνης

John Rawls

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Paperback
696 pages
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 About the Book 

Since appearing in 1971, Rawls A Theory of Justice has become a classic. He aims to express an essential part of the common core of the democratic tradition--justice as fairness--& to provide an alternative to utilitarianism, which had dominatedMoreSince appearing in 1971, Rawls A Theory of Justice has become a classic. He aims to express an essential part of the common core of the democratic tradition--justice as fairness--& to provide an alternative to utilitarianism, which had dominated the Anglo-Saxon tradition of political thought since the 19th century. He substitutes the ideal of the social contract as a superior account of the basic rights & liberties of citizens as free & equal persons. Each person, he writes, possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. Advancing ideas of Rousseau, Kant, Emerson & Lincoln, his theory is as powerful today as it was when 1st published.PrefacePart I Theory1 Justice as fairnessRole of justiceSubject of justiceMain idea of the theory of justiceOriginal position & justificationClassical utilitarianismSome related contrastsIntuitionismPriority problemSome remarks about moral theory2 Principles of justiceInstitutions & formal justiceTwo principles of justiceInterpretations of the 2nd principleDemocratic equality & the difference principleFair equality of opportunity & pure procedural justicePrimary social goods as the basis of expectationsRelevant social positionsTendency to equalityPrinciples for individuals: the principle of fairnessPrinciples for individuals: the natural duties3 Original positionNature of the argument for conceptions of justicePresentation of alternativesCircumstances of justiceFormal constraints off the concept of rightVeil of ignoranceRationality of the partiesReasoning leading to the two principles of justiceReasoning leading to the principle of average utilitySome difficulties with the average principleSome main grounds for the two principles of justiceClassical utilitarianism, impartiality & benevolencePart II: Institutions4 Equal libertyFour-stage sequenceConcept of libertyEqual liberty of conscienceToleration & the common interestToleration of the intolerantPolitical justice & the constitutionLimitations on the principle of participationRule of lawPriority of liberty definedKantian interpretation of justice as fairness5 Distributive sharesConcept of justice in political economySome remarks about economic systemsBackground institutions for distributive justiceProblem of justice between generationsTime preferenceFurther cases of priorityPrecepts of justiceLegitimate expectations & moral desertComparison with mixed conceptionsPrinciple of perfection6 Duty & obligationArguments for the principles of natural dutyArguments for the principle of fairnessDuty to comply with an unjust lawStatus of majority ruleDefinition of civil disobedienceDefinition of conscientious refusalJustification of civil disobedienceJustification of conscientious refusalRole of civil disobediencePart III: Ends7 Goodness as rationalityNeed for a theory of the goodDefinition of good for simpler casesNote on meaningDefinition of good for plans of lifeDeliberative rationalityAristotelian principleDefinition of good applied to personsSelf-respect, excellences & shameSeveral contrasts between the right & the good8 Sense of justiceConcept of a well-ordered societyMorality of authorityMorality of associationMorality of principlesFeatures of the moral sentimentsConnection between moral & natural attitudesPrinciples of moral psychologyProblem of relative stabilityBasis of equality9 Good of justiceAutonomy & objectivityIdea of social unionProblem of envyEnvy & equalityGrounds for the priority of libertyHappiness & dominant endsHedonism as a method of choiceUnity of the selfGood of the sense of justiceConcluding remarks on justificationIndex